D. J. Diestler, Z. B. Wu and X. C. Zeng
Journal of Chemical Physics, 121, 9279–9282 (2004).
Covering the solid lattice with a finite-element mesh produces a coarse-grained system of mesh nodes as pseudoatoms interacting through an effective potential energy that depends implicitly on the thermodynamic state. Use of the pseudoatomic Hamiltonian in a Monte Carlo simulation of the two-dimensional Lennard-Jones crystal yields equilibrium thermomechanical properties (e.g., isotropic stress) in excellent agreement with "exact" fully atomistic results.